ДНК порекло > Народи и њихова генетика


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Љубо Мирков:
Negde sam pročitao da su baskijski jezik i jezik algonkvinske grupe američkih domorodaca veoma srodni, čak toliko da su se baskijski mornari na kitolovcima bez problema sporazumevali sa njima pri prvim kontaktima. To ide u prilog Polićevoj teoriji.  ;)


--- Цитат: Љубо Мирков  Март 20, 2021, 11:53:13 поподне ---Negde sam pročitao da su baskijski jezik i jezik algonkvinske grupe američkih domorodaca veoma srodni, čak toliko da su se baskijski mornari na kitolovcima bez problema sporazumevali sa njima pri prvim kontaktima. To ide u prilog Polićevoj teoriji.  ;)

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То је мит. Баскијски језик је изолат који нема сродности ни са једном данас живућом породицом језика или са другим "језицима-изолатима". Покушавали су њега да доведу и у везу са картвелском породицом (где се налази грузијски), али без успеха. Он је напросто једини преживели потомак једног од мноштва неиндоевропских језика који су се говорили у Европи пре доласка Индоевропљана током енеолита и бронзаног доба. Једини изумрли језик са којим је показана веза је древни аквитански, који се на подручју ЈЗ Француске говорио у предримском и римском периоду.


--- Цитат: Полић  Март 20, 2021, 11:01:22 поподне ---Једно од објашњења је и нека врста геноцида мушкараца популације која је говорила предачким језиком баскијског језика од стране Р1б Индоевропљана,а баскијски језик су потомству пренеле мајке и тако је остао сачуван, иако су мушке линије оригиналних Баска у ствари збрисане и замењене мушким линијама освајача.

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И у овом раду се обрађује X хромозом:
All major mtDNA haplogroups observed among contemporary Basques are shared with the general European maternal pool.27–33 Although haplogroup H has been shown to be the most dominant among Basques,13,14 very different frequencies of other minor haplogroups have been reported. Indeed, several rare mtDNA variants within H2a5, U8a, J1c1, and J2a have been suggested to be autochthonous to some Basque groups but are absent in others.31,34,35 Likewise, distances between Basque populations have been found to be larger than between Basques and other Iberian groups, pointing to strong local isolation and limited gene flow between Basques and surrounding populations.32 This plethora of conflicting results, probably attesting to the complex demographic matrilineal history of Basques, have led to differing opinions regarding the putative genetic continuity between present-day Basques and Paleolithic Europeans27–29,31,34,35 and, more generally, with respect to the role played by the Franco-Cantabrian refuge in the postglacial recolonization of Europe.13,32

The most dominant H haplogroup of the Franco-Cantabrian region is H1j1, which accounts for 12.4% of haplogroup H variation of our data set (Figure S1). This haplogroup has only been observed in four previously reported individuals of Basque origin (D.M.B., unpublished data).43 Likewise, haplogroup H1t1, which explains 8.1% of haplogroup H variation, displays its highest frequencies in the Basque-speaking populations from France and Spain, and has been previously observed only among Basques (Figure S2).32 Haplogroup H2a5 accounted for 5.2% of haplogroup H variation. Here, we have further resolved the phylogeny of H2a5, now termed H2a5a1, and all previously reported individuals carrying this haplogroup34,44 belong indeed to the herein refined H2a5a1a (Figure S3). Haplogroup H1av1, which accounts for 4% of H haplogroup variation, has been found so far only in our data set and its distribution is restricted to Basque-speaking populations and immediately adjacent Spanish-speaking populations (Figure S4). Finally, haplogroups H3c2a (Figure S5) and H1e1a1 (Figure S6), which explain 3.3% and 2.9% of haplogroup H variation, respectively, have each been observed only once in a composite sample from Spain.13 Overall, the exclusive geographic distribution of H1j1, H1t1, H2a5a1, H1av1, H3c2a, and H1e1a1 among Basque-speaking populations and immediately adjacent populations and their absence from a large data set of populations of western European-descent strongly suggest that these haplogroups are indeed autochthonous to the region.

Изгледа да је матријархат кључ опстанка језика и идентитета Баскијаца (баскијске жене су сачувале преиндоевропски идентитет Европе :) ):
Strabo's account of the north of Spain in his Geographica (written between approximately 20 BC and 20 AD) makes a mention of "a sort of woman-rule—not at all a mark of civilization" (Hadington 1992), a first mention of the—for the period—unusual position of women. "Women could inherit and control property as well as officiate in churches. The evidence for this assertion is rather sparse however.

This preference for female dominance existed well into the 20th century:

...matrilineal inheritance laws, and agricultural work performed by women continued in Basque country until the early twentieth century. For more than a century, scholars have widely discussed the high status of Basque women in law codes, as well as their positions as judges, inheritors, and arbitrators through ante-Roman, medieval, and modern times. The system of laws governing succession in the French Basque region reflected total equality between the sexes. Up until the eve of the French Revolution, the Basque woman was truly ‘the mistress of the house', hereditary guardian, and head of the lineage.
While women continued to have a higher position in Basque than other western European societies, it is highly unlikely that any point the society was 'matriarchal', as is often falsely claimed about pre-Indo-European peoples in general. The 'Basque matriarchy' argument is typically tied to 20th century nationalism and is at odds with earlier accounts of the society.
Senior Basque women during the 16th century;

Basque matriarchy: science and existence.
Attending to historic development, the aim of my work is to analyze feminine
figure in Basque culture, mainly why Basque women, from ancient times, have had a
superior status than other women in different social and cultural groups. This valued
status includes the possession of ritual or medical traditional knowledge and its
transmission in generations, because this wisdom appears closely related with feminine

Имао сам прилику да боравим у Баскији, у Арасате-Мондрагону приликом једног такмичења за хармонику. Нисам тад размишљао о језику , али чим смо ушли у ту област, видео сам по саобраћајним знаковима да нема никакве везе са европским језицима ("центар" се не пише тако итд)...Лепо место у континенталном делу Баскије, неких 50 км од Сан Себастијана (у том континенталном делу се и највише користи баскијски):


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