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Kyrios:
Ево једног веома занимљивог прегледног чланка, не сећам се да је до сада помињан:

Joseph Pickrell, David Reich, Towards a new history and geography of human genes informed by ancient DNA, bioRxiv first posted online March 21, 2014, the most recent version: doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/003517

Има пуно занимљивих закључака, ево неколико њих који се тичу Европе:

"Ancient DNA studies have also revealed population turnover over shorter timescales (Bramanti et al., 2009; Brandt et al., 2013; Haak et al., 2005, 2010; Keller et al., 2012; Lazaridis et al., 2013; Malmström et al., 2009; Skoglund et al., 2012). A major debate in the last few decades among archaeologists and geneticists has been about whether the arrival of agriculture in Europe involved the spread of people or culture. Skoglund et al. (2012) addressed this controversy by analyzing genome-­‐ wide genetic data from Swedish hunter-­‐gatherer and agriculturalist populations that lived around 5,000 years ago. The farmer population appears most genetically similar to southern Europeans today, while the hunter-­‐gatherers are more similar to northern Europeans. Thus, at least in Scandinavia, the spread of agriculture was accompanied by the spread of people. Mitochondrial DNA studies have shown that such population turnovers accompanied the arrival of agriculture throughout Europe (Bramanti et al., 2009; Brandt et al., 2013; Haak et al., 2005, 2010).

The arrival of farmers was not the end of pre-­‐historic population turnover in Europe (and we do not even discuss here the turnovers that occurred in the few thousand years in Europe since the invention of writing; see Davies, 1998; Hellenthal et al., 2014; Moorjani et al., 2011; Ralph and Coop, 2013). The most notable study in this regard is the one of Brandt et al. (2013), which assembled mtDNA data from 364 human samples from archaeological cultures ranging from the early Neolithic to the Bronze Age from the same geographic area in Germany. This study documented discontinuity between people of early and late Neolithic cultures, with people of late Neolithic cultures bearing more relatedness to the present-­‐day populations of Eastern Europe and Russia than do people of early Neolithic cultures. Thus, major demographic turnover has happened at least twice over the course of the last eight thousand years of European prehistory. This makes inferences about the inhabitants of Europe tens of thousands of years ago based on the locations of people today unreliable."

Kyrios:
Рад Brandt et al. (2013) на који се позивају Pickrell & Reich анализиран је на Dienekes' Anthropology Blog - http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2013/10/ancient-central-european-mtdna-across.html

Ево графикона који је тамо дат и који врло јасно осликава дисконтинуитет mtDNA хаплогрупа у неолиту:

Синиша Јерковић:

--- Цитат: Kyrios  Септембар 10, 2014, 04:34:57 поподне ---Ево једног веома занимљивог прегледног чланка, не сећам се да је до сада помињан:

Joseph Pickrell, David Reich, Towards a new history and geography of human genes informed by ancient DNA, bioRxiv first posted online March 21, 2014, the most recent version: doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/003517

Има пуно занимљивих закључака, ево неколико њих који се тичу Европе:

"Ancient DNA studies have also revealed population turnover over shorter timescales (Bramanti et al., 2009; Brandt et al., 2013; Haak et al., 2005, 2010; Keller et al., 2012; Lazaridis et al., 2013; Malmström et al., 2009; Skoglund et al., 2012). A major debate in the last few decades among archaeologists and geneticists has been about whether the arrival of agriculture in Europe involved the spread of people or culture. Skoglund et al. (2012) addressed this controversy by analyzing genome-­‐ wide genetic data from Swedish hunter-­‐gatherer and agriculturalist populations that lived around 5,000 years ago. The farmer population appears most genetically similar to southern Europeans today, while the hunter-­‐gatherers are more similar to northern Europeans. Thus, at least in Scandinavia, the spread of agriculture was accompanied by the spread of people. Mitochondrial DNA studies have shown that such population turnovers accompanied the arrival of agriculture throughout Europe (Bramanti et al., 2009; Brandt et al., 2013; Haak et al., 2005, 2010).

The arrival of farmers was not the end of pre-­‐historic population turnover in Europe (and we do not even discuss here the turnovers that occurred in the few thousand years in Europe since the invention of writing; see Davies, 1998; Hellenthal et al., 2014; Moorjani et al., 2011; Ralph and Coop, 2013). The most notable study in this regard is the one of Brandt et al. (2013), which assembled mtDNA data from 364 human samples from archaeological cultures ranging from the early Neolithic to the Bronze Age from the same geographic area in Germany. This study documented discontinuity between people of early and late Neolithic cultures, with people of late Neolithic cultures bearing more relatedness to the present-­‐day populations of Eastern Europe and Russia than do people of early Neolithic cultures. Thus, major demographic turnover has happened at least twice over the course of the last eight thousand years of European prehistory. This makes inferences about the inhabitants of Europe tens of thousands of years ago based on the locations of people today unreliable."

--- Крај цитата ---

Ова три велика таласа насељавања Европе, чини ми се да су прилично добро подупрта доказима. Искључујући неке новије миграције, имамо три основне групације: палеолитске ловце сакупљаче, неолитске землљораднике и индоевропске сточаре.

Ако бисмо односе унутар Y-днк пренијели на односе укупне днк, онда бисмо за данашње Србе могли рећи да су:

40% палеолитски ловци сакупљачи
30% индоевропски сточари
25% неолитски земљорадници
5% остали

Đorđo:
Another upcoming ancient DNA paper.

Insights into British and European population history from ancient DNA sequencing of Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon samples from Hinxton, England. S. Schiffels, W. Haak, B. Llamas, E. Popescu, L. Loe, R. Clarke, A. Lyons, P. Paajanen, D. Sayer, R. Mortimer, C. Tyler-Smith, A. Cooper, R. Durbin.
British population history is shaped by a complex series of repeated immigration periods and associated changes in population structure. It is an open question however, to what extent each of these changes is reflected in the genetic ancestry of the current British population. Here we use ancient DNA sequencing to help address that question. We present whole genome sequences generated from five individuals that were found in archaeological excavations at the Wellcome Trust Genome Campus near Cambridge (UK), two of which are dated to around 2,000 years before present (Iron Age), and three to around 1,300 years before present (Anglo-Saxon period). Good preservation status allowed us to generate one high coverage sequence (12x) from an Iron Age individual, and four low coverage sequences (1x-4x) from the other samples. By providing the first ancient whole genome sequences from Britain, we get a unique picture of the ancestral populations in Britain before and after the Anglo-Saxon immigrations. We use modern genetic reference panels such as the 1000 Genomes Project to examine the relationship of these ancient samples with present day population genetic data. Results from principal component analysis suggest that all samples fall consistently within the broader Northern European context, which is also consistent with mtDNA haplogroups. In addition, we obtain a finer structural genetic classification from rare genetic variants and haplotype based methods such as FineStructure. Reflecting more recent genetic ancestry, results from these methods suggest significant differences between the Iron Age and the Anglo-Saxon period samples when compared to other European samples. We find in particular that while the Anglo-Saxon samples resemble more closely the modern British population than the earlier samples, the Iron Age samples share more low frequency variation than the later ones with present day samples from southern Europe, in particular Spain (1000GP IBS). In addition the Anglo-Saxon period samples appear to share a stronger older component with Finnish (1000GP FIN) individuals. Our findings help characterize the ancestral European populations involved in major European migration movements into Britain in the last 2,000 years and thus provide more insights into the genetic history of people in northern Europe.

Окир СРБ:
http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2014/141021/ncomms6257/fig_tab/ncomms6257_T1.html

Колико видим пронађене су Y хаплогрупе I2a, J2a1, N и C6.

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